«Society & Man» № 1(7) — 2014

Philological Sciences

Abakumova, O.B.
Conversational Analysis and the Use of Proverbs

The article deals with the problems of conversational analysis and modeling the sense of proverb in the everyday speech. It is stated that social factor plays an important role in the use of proverbs as their actualization is connected with the social norms fixed in the semantics of proverbs.

Key words: conversational analysis, discourse, proverb, sense modeling, social factor, deontic norms.

Astafurova, V.N., Olyanitch, A.V.
The linguosemiotcs of gluttony stereotypes: superstitions, prejudices and biases in ethnic food preferences

This article dwells upon linguistic and discursive stereotypes in semiotic forming and maintaining based on superstitions, prejudices and biases in ethnic food preferences. Gluttony signs included in texts of .opinions. and .national ideas. on admissibility and inadmissibility of different types of food and drink consumption and represented in ethnic-cultural world are being researched.

Key words: bias, visual, gluttony, gust, discourse, sign, lingua-semiotics, need, superstition, prejudice, semiosis, stereotype, scent, text, ethnic.

Philological sciences

Voznesenskaia, L.N.
English terminology in IT discourse

The article gives a short review of English-language terms as they are used in a professional IT discourse. On the basis of .ITNews. weekly linguistic analysis some peculiar features of borrowed terms usage are summed up.

Key words: Information Technology (IT), terminology, English-language borrowings, transcription, transliteration, professional discourse.

Gvishiani, N.B.
Conceptual patterns and text genres in corpus linguistics

This paper explores the potential of using corpora in investigating the link between text genres and semantic characteristics of certain conceptual structures, such as synonymy, antonymy, and hyponymy. Within corpus linguistics, meaning is associated with the form of lexical items that can be retrieved automatically. As models of particular situation settings, genres identify contexts in which the subject is being discussed. The influence of text genres and behavioral strategies of the speaker on the frequency and semantic interpretation of patterns is discussed with reference to .pattern markers. indicating a conceptual relation we are searching for. It is argued that a corpus-based analysis provides both quantitative and qualitative information linking the co-occurrence patterns to text genres and concepts in discourse.

Key words: corpus stylistics, conceptual pattern, discourse structure, text genres, pattern marker, relations of synonymy, antonymy.

Goldberg, V.B.
A sign and a background concept as the basis of a simile

Semiotic and conceptual stages of cognition are analysed. It is argued that the semiotic stage preceding the conceptual stage aims at choosing an icon as a landmark. The conceptual stage includes the analysis of the background concept and its dynamics.

Key words: simile, semiotics, conceptology, sign, icon, background concept

Karasik, V.I.
Everyday linguistic reflection

The article deals with non-professional linguistic reflection of language and speech. The main peculiarities of such reflection consist in sensual comprehension of reality, transductive mental operations, personal experience only, content and form simplification, mythological thought style, random coincidence symbolization, irrational arguments usage.

Key words: everyday reflection, linguistic reflection, content and form simplification, random coincidence symbolization, irrational arguments usage.

Keselman, I.S., Forafonov, I.A.
The hard task of a lexicographer: an experiment

The corpora have immensely facilitated lexicographers’ work and made dictionary writing easier, speedier and more trustworthy. However, one of the basic and most difficult tasks in the process, meaning splitting, has remained hard. A study of a restricted object (the collocation soft patch) as it is presented in BNC and COCA illustrates some of the difficulties in corpora usage for lexicographic purposes.

Key words: lexicography, dictionaries, word meanings/senses, corpora, context, meaning splitting.

Kiklewicz, A.
On communicative-pragmatical aspects of polysemy

The present article deals with semantic derivation processes, i.e. with modification of the lexical units meaning which determines their polysemy (metaphor or metonymy). The author presents the theoretical basis for the study of polysemy taking into account the conditions of communicative, pragmatical and anthropological context of the activities of social groups of various formats. In so doing the author makes use of linguistic literature on the theory and methodology of language, as well as in the field of lexical semantics. The author pays particular attention to semantic compilation in modern lexicography, and describes the phenomenon of metaphor-reminiscences.

Key words: lexical semantics, polysemy, metaphor, pragmalinguistics and sociopragmatics, functional linguistics, metaphor, lexicography / dictionaries, semantic compilation, metaphor-reminiscence.

Kolker, Ya.M.
The Peculiarities of Shakespeare’s Sonnets as a Thematic Unit (Sonnets 1-3)

Reading Shakespeare’s sonnets, one feels baffled by the fact that many poems look like variations of a never-written verse that exists somewhere in the consciousness of the poet. Such sonnets are thematically alike, but they are very different in the manner of interpreting the theme, and form a semantic unit that gives the reader a holistic picture of the subject. This conclusion is supported by investigation of the metaconceptual ties that penetrate the sonnets, knitting them into a seamless structure. The structure is made vivid by the interpretation of different translations of the sonnets.

Key words: text, theme, image, metaconcept, connection, unity, variety, translation, translator’s decision.

Martynova, N.A.
The role of terminology in forming professionals’ communication competence

This article is devoted to the role of terms in forming professionals’ communication competence. The main categories of terms and the methods of their building are studied. Terms of administrative law are taken as examples.

Key words: communication competence, system of terms, terms of administrative law.

Novichihina, M.E.
On the study of semantic similarity of single-word and compound commercial; designation in the process of expert linguistic examination of trademarks

The article is devoted to the problem of trademark linguistic expert examination and the search of ways to improve the process. Some points at issue which arise in the process of expert examination are addressed.

Key words: linguistic expert examination, trademark, confusing similarity, semantic similarity.

Petrova, O.V.
Translating or rewriting?

There are texts that cannot be adequately translated without alterations going far beyond the traditional limits of pragmatic adaptation. The article discusses the status of resulting TL texts as a special form of linguistic mediation.

Key words: translation, pragmatic adaptation, adaptive transcoding.

Pursglove, M.
A Lermontov lyric revisited by a translator

The article begins by examining changing attitudes to Lermontov, both his work and his personality, in both Russia and the Anglophone world, over the last fifty years. The advent of his bicentenary has sparked a revival of interest in him, but his prose work remains far better known than his poetry, despite some excellent translations. One of his most famous lyrics Когда волнуется желтеющая нива has largely escaped the attention of Anglophone translators. A new translation of the poem is offered here, together with an analysis (developed from Boris Eikhenbaum’s seminal 1922 work) of the challenges posed to the Anglophone translator by Lermontov’s subtle use of metre, rhyme, lexis and syntax. Comparisons are drawn with other poems, notably Cмерть поэта, Дума, Родина and Первое января and the importance of this poem in the Lermontov canon, not least for its musical qualities, is underlined.

Key words: Lermontov; bicentenary; lyric poems; anaphora; Boris Eikhenbaum.

Semenenko, L.P.
Speech act theory: between the devil and the deep blue sea

The theory of speech acts is considered from two points of view: (i) as a theory of natural language communication, and (ii) as a theory of lexical semantics that deals with the semantic group of performative verbs.

Key words: illocutionary act, performative verb, felicity condition of a speech act, component of a lexical meaning.

Sternin, I.A.
Ordinary consciousness and language myths

Myths of ordinary language consciousness are considered in the framework of some linguistic concepts. Indicators of mythological concepts and stereotypes are defined. Thorough analysis of the mythological component of ordinary language consciousness is needed. The problem of overcoming erroneous stereotypes of language consciousness is also dealt with: when continually spread, they turn into mental viruses, and that has to be withstood by scientific analysis and explanation.

Key words: language consciousness, myths and stereotypes of language consciousness, mental viruses.

Timoshina, T.V.
The fragmented Seme semantics words

The article deals with non-systemic semes in the semantic structure of the word, ie semes induced by the word’s contextual environment. Group semes of various types are analysed as an example: territorial, professional, age-related, gender-related, individual. Non-systemic semasiology is postulated as a specific branch of semasiology.

Key words: non-systemic semes; group semes: territorial, professional, age-relared, gender-related, individual; non-systemic semasiology.

Fateyeva, E.D.
Linguistic education: wavering from the past… to the future?

Acute problems of linguistic education reform are discussed in connection with the general trends of higher education restructuring. Essential needs in this sphere are highlighted, relevant to content renovation and the structural format change. The necessity to bridge the gap between linguistic theory and language teaching is emphasized. The potential of the new education standard is analyzed and put to criticism as inadequate in this respect. Some observations are made on the current state of competence-based education.

Key words: linguistic education, higher education restructuring, competence-based education, the new educational standard, paradigm shift in linguistics, integration tendencies, the gap between linguistic theory and language teaching.

Tsimberg, B.D.
Equivalence issues with respect to teaching translation from German into English (based on teaching/learning materials)

This article covers some basic issues of the equivalence when translating from German into English on the lexical and grammatical levels (translation units) based on learning/teaching materials. A conclusion according to which the equivalence is becoming more relative when moving to a higher hierarchical level of translation confirms the approach of the leading translation scholars.

Key words: translation, levels (units) of translation, equivalence, syntactical level, lexical level, phrase, sentence, text.

Shashkova, V.N.
Modal characteristics of court records

The article presents the results of detecting modal characteristics of court records with the view of regarding dominant modal properties as a typological criterion of a court record as a text type. Taking into account the intentional semantics of text modules which normally contain specific modal characteristics we focus on revealing habitual contexts for the latter.

Key words: modality, text modality, text module, functional and semantic types of utterances, legal discourse, court discourse, court records.

Schekotikhina, I.N.
On types of communicative behavior of participants in association experiments

The article develops the ideas of a communicative approach to the interpretation of behaviour demonstrated by participants in an association experiment. It shows a variety of their lingua-cognitive actions and personality characteristics expressed in verbal associations. It also offers a list of parameters to distinguish the types of the behaviour under consideration.

Key words: association/associative experiment, communicative behaviour, communicative act, line of behaviour, strategy.

Legal Sciences

Isaev, N.A.
Criminal-legal assessment of the subject of violent sex crimes with mental abnormalities

The article examines the characteristics of the processes of psychic regulation of behavior in those who have committed violent sexual crimes. Regulation is seen as arbitrary commands and involuntary under volitional control. Depending on the regulation of behavior given his criminal legal assessment under sanity-insanity.

Keywords: abnormal subject, sexual abuse, behavior regulation, volitional control, sanity of.

Savchenko, A.V.
Special measures to combat corruption in Russia

The article discusses special measures to combat corruption in Russia. First of all, the new regulations defining policies to combat corruption; suggestions for improvement of the Criminal Code dealing with official criminalit.

Key words: fight against corruption, special measures, a legal act, the Criminal Code, the anti-corruption expertise.

Social sciences

Robert C. Hauhart
Part II. Some Principles of Stratification Revisited

In 1945 two young, Harvard trained sociologists, Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore, published an article in the American Sociological Review entitled “Some Principles of Stratification”. The Davis and Moore theory, while clearly deficient in its formulation, offers a platform for new theory generation regarding the nature of stratified inequality. In Part I of this two-part paper, the Davis-Moore theory was re-analyzed for the purpose of noting points that guide new insights. In Part II, following, I offer some suggestions for a new theoretical approach to understanding stratification.